Each of our feet is made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and tendons,muscles and ligaments numbering up to 100. The disorders of the foot and ankle can be listed as
1. Disorders of the skin
2. Disorders of the joints
3. Disorders of the bones
4. Disorders of the nerves
5. Combined disorders
6. Genetic disorders
7. Specific manifestations of systemic disease
Disorders of the skins:
- Athlete’s foot: A disease caused due to fungal infection also called tinea pedis. The infection can mitigate to other areas of the body.
- Callus and Corns of the Skin: A toughened area of the skin formed due to high wear and tear and friction which helps in the protection of tissues inside it.
- Onychocryptosis (Ingrown Toenail): A very painful condition usually seen in the toe nail in which the nail cuts into one or both the sides of the nail bed.
- Keratosis palmaris et plantaris: formation of thick ,scaly and hard patches of skin.
Disorders of the joint:
- Hallux valgus (bunion): It is a structural deformity of the bones ,the surrounding tissues and the joint connecting the foot with the big toe which can be very painful.The surrounding tissues may be swollen and the big toe nail may turn to the second toe nail.
- Hallux varus: t is caused due to the deformity of the great toe joint.
- Diabetic Arthropathy (Charcot Foot): It is caused due to the degeneration of the weight bearing joint causing bone and tissue damage and excess pain.
- Rheumatoid arthritis: An inflamatory disorder attacking the jointswhich produces an inflammatory synovitis.
- Osteoarthritis: It is a degenerative disease causing the degeneration of the joints.